Astra Jet

Study Guide


First flight: Mar 19, 1984. 1 hour +35 minutes flight time.
Gear & Flaps cycled.

Israel -  Aug 21, 1985
USA  -  Aug 29, 1985

First Airplanes
Serial No:  1
Flight Test
Serial No:  2
Flight Test
Serial No:  3
Structural Test
Serial No:  4
Serial No: 11
Actually 5th with bogus SN
Serial No: 14
Actually 6th with bogus SN
Serial No: 24
Actually 7th with bogus SN

     The when checking out in the airplane, I was told by the instructor that the purpose of the bogus serial numbers was to deliver the 5th airplane to the first customer, who actually wanted the 11th one built.  The 6th and 7th aircraft, I am told were serial numbered 14 and 24 for similar reasons.  As I understand it, one of the companies was very angry about this, parked the airplane(s) they bought, and hung out a "For Sale" sign.  This was not a good thing for IAI in the beginning.  Many thought what they did was very unethical.  Regardless of this, I have found the Astra to be a great airplane.  It is hard to beat for going high and fast on not a whole lot of fuel.  It is a fairly reliable LAX - HNL airplane unless the wind is over about 60 knots.


    The Astra Jet is basically an 8 passenger plus 2 crew low wing twin engine jet.  It has a maximum cruise altitude of 45,000 feet. and a range of over 2,500 nautical miles.  The Astra Jet is certified for flight into known icing conditions.  It cruises between 400 and 465 knots, depending on the desired range.  It has two over wing emergency exits, and a main cabin door.
    The door is equipped with mechanical locks and a bleed air inflated seal.  There is no weight limit on door due to mechanical door rest.  A gas assisted door cyl snubs the door, and aids in closing the door.  The door seal  is inflated by the BSV's.  The cabin door light goes out when pressure increases past 25 psi and goes on when it decreases below 20 psi.  It regulates to 30 psi & relieves at 38 psi.  Two micro switches (one on the door and one on the frame) verify door is locked.  Max altitude is 41,000 ft with cabin door light on if the door is verified locked.

    The IA-1125 is 20 in longer & 8 in taller in cabin than it's ancestor the Westwind. The tail is basically the same except it has 3 pitch trim motors.  The nosewheel axle is slightly aft of the strut, making steering it on the ground much easier. The Astra was equipped with solid glass & plastic heated windshields.  The early ones had delamination problems.  I know of at least one lawsuit over this problem.  Apparently they fixed the problem.  When you hand fly it, it seems like you are always on trimming, however, the same is true of a P-51 Mustang.  All things considered, if I were not so poor, I would buy and Astra if I were looking for an airplane in it's class.  The Citation III is a nicer flying airplane from a pilot standpoint, but it's systems are unnecessarily complex, and it does not have as much range.  The Astra has turned out to be a good airplane.


Weight Limitations
Max Ramp
24,800 Lbs
Max Takeoff
24,650 Lbs 
Max Landing
20,700 Lbs
Max Zero Fuel
17,000 Lbs 
Min Flight: 
12,100 Lbs 

 Altitude Limitations
Max Certificated
     45,000 ft 
Cabin Door Light Illuminated
41,000 ft
Autopilot & Yaw Damper Inop
31,000 ft
Flap and Gear Extended
20,000 ft
Take Off & Landing
14,000 ft

Airspeed Limitations
Vmo / Mmo - Normal
363 kts / 0.855 Mach
Vmo / Mmo - Autopilot Off
363 kts / 0.820 Mach
Va - @ Gross Weight
236 kts
Va - @ 14,000 lbs
183 kts
Vfe - Slats & Flaps 12 deg
250 kts
Vfe -Flaps 20 deg
225 kts
Vfe - Flaps 40 deg
180 kts
Vlo / Vle
180 kts
98 kts
89 kts

Miscellaneous Limitations
Temperature Limits
-54 C to ISA +35 C
Runway Slope
2% Gradient
Max Tailwind T.O. / Land
10 kts
Load Factor / Flaps Retracted
+2.85G  to -1.0 G
Load Factor / Flaps Extended
+2.00G to - 0.0 G



    The 731 engine is now a fairly mature power plant.  On a day to day basis, you should not have much trouble with it.  I would not, however, even think about operating one of these engines without MSP, as they do just up and come apart now and then, and that can cost big bucks.  I would recomend MSP Gold, as it is worth the extra few bucks per hour not to get the shaft for engine removal and installation when something does happen.
    When you start these engines, be sure to verify N1 rotation before advancing the power lever to idle.  The Fan is most likely to stick if the engine has been shut down for more than a few minutes, but less than a couple of hours.

Garrett TFE 731-3A-200G   3700 lbs Thrust
N1 N2 ITT Deg C Time
Start Temps
 907 C
917 C
Abv 927 C 
No Limit 
10 Sec 
 Hot Section
907 C
5 Minutes 
Max Continuous
885 C
30 Minutes
Max Overspeed
 101.5% to 103.0% 
103.0% to 105.0%
103.0% to 105.0% 
  1 minute 
  5 Seconds

Note:  Allow engine to idle below 38% N1 for 3 minutes before shutdown.  This is to let the internal engine temperatures stabilize.

 Engine Start Limitations
10% N2 to Lightoff in 10 seconds Max
Lightoff to idle in 50 seconds
Oil Press indication within 10 sec after Lightoff 
Airstarts: Fuel Flow to 60% N2 in 25 sec

Engine Oil System
Reservoir Capacity
6.0 Quarts
System Capacity
11.6 Quarts
Oil Temperature: Below 30,000 ft
30 C -127 C
Oil Temperature Above 30,000 ft
140 C
Max Transient Temp / 2 Minutes
149 C
Oil Pressure / Idle
25 - 46 psi
38 - 46 psi
Transient: / 3 Minutes
55 psi
Low Pressure Light
25 psi

Note: "Oil Pressure Warning lights come on at and below 25 psi.   The warning lights and gauges have separate sensors.  Both pressure and   temperature are measured downstream of the fuel / oil heat exchanger.

Engine Fuel System

      Fuel Heat:
  If fuel from the engine driven boost pump is <
      50 F, the anti-ice valve modulates and return fuel passes through the fuel heater then back
  to the filter to anti-ice it.  Fully open at
      32 F.  Above 50 F, all bypass goes to high- pressure engine driven pump inlet.
      Fuel Computers:
  Powered by the Main Busses.  No go items.
      Ignitors: 6 & 7 o'clock positions
      Excitor Box: 10 o'clock position Instruments:
          N1 and N2 powered by Associated Distribution
Busses. ITT’s 28 VDC powered by Distribution Bus.

Thrust Reversers

    The Thrust Reversers are Hydraulically operated and Electrically controlled. (The left from No.1 Distribution Bus, right from No. 2 Distr. Bus.) They are held open by hydraulic pressure from the Aux Hydraulic System, they are held stowed by over center linkage.  A thrust reverser accumulator can provide 1 thrust reverser deployment if necessary.  The accumulator is not large enough to stow the reversers after extending them.

Thrust Reverser Limitations
Thrust Reverser / Min Airspeed for Reverse Above Idle
70 kts
Airport Elevation Above 5,000 MSL
82% N1
Thrust Reverser / Max Deploy Time / 15 Minute Period
1 Minute
Thrust Reverser / With Unsafe Light ON
Idle Deploy Only

Gas Filled Fire Loops:
      Fire protection is provided to the engines by loops containing gases.  Halogen gas is released
when Hot spots are sensed in Zone 1, the Cold Section, while helium gas is released if over-heating
is sensed in Zone 2, the Hot Section. As these gases  are released, the FIRE/OVERHEAT switch light
illuminates.  Pushing the switch light does the following:
       Closes the Engine Fuel Shut-off Valve
       Closes the Hydraulic Fluid Shut-off Valve
               Arms the Extinguishing System to the associated engine.
      Fire Bottles are discharged into Zone 1 only.
      Either bottle can be fired into either engine.
      Overheat calls for a reduction of engine power,
      if the light goes out, OK to run at reduced thrust.
      The system is automatically reset when temps go down.  A red blowout disc located on the left aft
  fuselage will indicate a thermal discharge of a
  fire bottle.

      The following lights should come on, each indicating the following:
       "BLEED AIR LEAK" should illuminate on panel
       "FIRE/OVERHEAT" switch lights indicate validity
            of detector elements
       "ARM/EMPTY" switch lights indicate validity of
            electrical circuitry.
       "PRESS-TO-TEST" Four bulbs indicate validity
            of electrical circuits for extinguisher
            discharge head detonators.
            Note: bulbs are tested with IND TEST.

          Two 24 Volt Ni-Cads (installed rear), 24 or 36 amp hour.
          Auto Load Reduct: Window heat, baggage heat,  galley  power.
          To read volts, place switch in Bat or Gen and push button for volts.  Battery or Gen need not be on.
          Three Bat switches: 2 Bat Disconnect, and 1 Master
          Battery (with Load Reduct Override).
          Do not takeoff with Bat temp 140 or higher.

          Two Generators: 30 volts, 300 amps (regulated to 28.5v). 300 Amps max continuous ground & flight.  Auto Parallel and Load Equalization.   Generator field weakening to limit battery charging rate after start, etc. (ground only). First two minutes of generator operation in limited to 26.5v by GCU.  Protection includes: field weakening, normal GCU functions, and anti-runaway protection for sheared shafts on engine start.  Generator reset resets the field.  Overheat light comes on, (330 deg F) must manually disconnect generator.

 External Power::
      28VDC / 1000 amps.  250 amp fuse in line.
Over voltage protection disconnects both batteries. at 29.5 volts.  EPU switch on, both generators are disconnected or inhibited from being connected.  Check EPU volts with Bat position = volts and push button.

Inverters now located in aft compartment.  Blowers now cool avionics.
2 Blowers in nose (115 vac Ground Only)
3 Fans in nose (115 vac)
3 Fans in cockpit (28.5 vdc  Com & Acc bus, to cool EFIS)

          Hot Battery: Bat 2, Pressure refueling, Bat 1, step, baggage, and entrance lighting.
          Battery busses: power Main busses.  Flap and slat motors with 150 Amp current limiter.  NEVER run together. BTC opens at 200 Amps to disconnect respective bat from its main bus. Acts like current limiters.
      Main busses power: Distribution busses and:
  standby fuel pumps, inverters, fuel computers,
  auto load shed circuits (window heat, baggage
      heat, galley power), communication and access busses, horizontal stab trim heater (left bus), and auxiliary hydraulic pump (rt bus).
               Circuit protection: Inverters       75 Amps Windshields     70 Amps
  Fuel Pumps      25 Amps
  Galley          50 Amps

      Note: 75 Amps @ 28.5 Volts = 2.865 Horsepower.  The above mentioned items draw lots of power.
          Distribution busses: both supply power to Priority bus.  Distribution Bus Tie Circuit Breaker connects left and right sides when one side dead; all three feeder circuit breakers out.

          Priority bus: powers Flight Director and Auto Pilot enunciators, ADC 1, A/S & mach co-pilot DC,
  com 2 & 3, Audio 2, and... customer options.
      Between L & R Distribution busses.  Powered thru diodes to prevent priority bus from powering either Dist bus.


          Inverters: 2 115 VAC & 26 VAC, 1000VA, 400 hz solid state inverters (installed aft).  These
          inverters power the following busses, each having 115 v and 26 v busses for each pilot.
       Service busses
       Avionics busses
       DC Communications and Accessory busses
      AC Control Switches:
               'NORM' - no. 1 inverter powers left service busses, no. 2 inverter powers right service busses
               'ALT'  - opposite inverter powers selected service busses
      Note: If both switches are in 'alt' there are no inverters operating at all, no AC.
           'off'  - inverters operate but no AC available

      "AC Bus Off" light:
           ON & volts low - Bad Inv.
           ON & volts OK  - Fault on bus or bad sensor.
  Check EADI flag on EFIS.
       Flag    = Fault on bus.
       No Flag = Bad sensor.
     Master Caution: Lights on Capt. & F/O glare shield. 2 light powered from different busses.  Will activate
  for any light except "Nac" & "Surf" ice protection
  system.  Poorly designed system.  Nuisance warnings
      will teach pilot to ignore Master Caution system, especially "Airbrakes" and "Slat Out". Takeoff Warning: Powered by No 2 Dist Bus.  If throttle is above 85% N1, Airbrakes, Slat, Flaps, and Pitch
  trim will activate warning.  Can be deactivated for
  Trim and Slat bypass.  Light will stay on.  See AFM
  for takeoff procedure with flaps or slats inop.


Fuel Tank Capacity
Left Wing Tank
1887.5 lbs
281 Gal
Right Wing Tank
1887.5 lbs
281 Gal
Central Tank Upper
3723 lbs
556 Gal
Central Tank Lower
1132 lbs
169 Gal
Extension Tank
670 lbs
100 Gal
Collector Boxes
62 lbs
9.25 Gal
Total / Normal
8692 lbs
1297 Gal
Total / Extension Tanks
9365 lbs
1397 Gal

Fuel System Test Should Indicate::
Left & Right Wing Tank
1,000 +/- 100
Central Tank
4,000 +/- 100
Central Tank Upper
3,400 +/- 100
Central Tank Lower
   600 +/- 100

 Fuel Usage
      Engines receive fuel  from collector boxes only.  The collector boxes are just big sumps that are kept full by the central tank lower and the wings.  Starting with full fuel tanks, the fuel taken from the collector boxes by the engines is replaced with fuel from the central tank lower.  The central tank upper fuel gravity flows into central tank lower, keeping it full until the central tank upper reaches the standpipe level, about half it's capacity.  The central tank lower fuel is consumed, and that tank becomes empty. With the fuel transfer switch in "Auto", a float switch then causes, the left and right fuel transfer valves open, allowing the remaining fuel in the central tank upper to gravity flow into the wings.  The wings keep the collector boxes full, until they themselves are empty!  At that time, there is only about 9 gallons, or about 3 minutes of fuel remaining.

  Fuel transfer switch must be placed to "Open"  prior to turning off the battery switch.  This opens the transfer valves so normal fueling is possible.  The fuel (Single Point) goes through Central Tank Upper through Transfer Valves (Must open these) to Left and Right Wings
and Collector Boxes.  When these are full, the Central Tank Upper fills to Standpipe overflows into and fills the Central Tank Lower.  When the Central Tank Lower is full, the Central Tank Upper fills the Extension Tanks.  Over wing and gravity fueling total yields 13.2 gallons less usable fuel.

  Fire Shutoff Valves: in line from tank to engine.
          Transfer Valves: 'open'  - manual
  'close' - manual
  'auto'  - arms transfer valves to float switch
       in Central Tank Lower; 60 seconds after
       empty transfer valves open connecting
       Cent Tank Up (below Standpipe) to wings.
          "Fuel Xfer" light comes on if 'auto' not selected and fuel level down to appropriate level
        for valves to be open.
      Interconnect Valves: for lateral fuel balance only.
  Aft connects collector tanks, forward connects
          Jettison Valves: automatically stops jettison at 600 pounds per side.
      Standby Fuel Pumps: are located in collector boxes.
  Used to boost fuel to engine driven pump AND
  supply  motive flow for 2 transfer jet pumps.
      Normal Ops use standby pumps 'On' for engine start, then engine driven pump provides
motive flow pressure to booster jet pump. Standby pump to 'Off', then 'Auto'; only comes on < 7 psi.
          "Standby On" light comes on when Standby pump operating.
      "Fuel Press" light comes on < 7 psi.
          Booster Jet Pumps: are located in collector boxes. Powered by motive flow from engine driven pumps. Normally, these pumps are the only pumps on after engines are started providing fuel pressure to the engines.  But if pressure goes < 7 psi, Standby pump comes on (if in Auto position).
      Transfer Jet Pumps: scavenge pumps for fuel supply.
      Powered by motive flow from either Standby pump or engine driven pump.  One each side in Central Tank Lower, and one each side in Wing Tanks (4).
      "Fuel Low" light comes on at 450#/side or collector
  boxes not full.
      Lateral Unbalance Limit is 800#.
      Fuel Temp Limit (Jet A) -34 to 61C

 Surface De Ice
  Boots are pneumatically operated and electrically controlled.  The air source is the LP compressor off both engines.  Air is regulated to 8 psi, relief at 21 psi.
          'Norm': operates wing and slat for 6 sec's, horizontal for 4 sec's, dwell off for 50 sec's, repeated till switched off.
      'Alt': identical to 'Norm', use for 'Norm' failure.
      "WING/TAIL" light on at 13 psi inflation pressure.
      Push to Test "WING/TAIL": Tail on, drain heating
  element op (heated during test).
          "SURFACE DEICE" light on indicates pressure regulator failed of jet pump suction low.
      Surface De-ice must be off for Takeoff and Landing.
 Nacelle Anti-Ice
      The Nacelles are anti-iced by hot air from the HP
      compressor which goes directly to an electropneu-
      matic valve (no manifold).  The valve is elec-
      trically controlled and fail-safe open.  Powered by
      its associated Distribution Bus.
      "ENG PROBE & NACELLE" switch light, push for ON.
      "GRD" indicates normal ground anti-icing pressure
      "FLT" indicates normal flight anti-icing pressure,
  Throttles must be above 80% N2.
      "NACELLE ANTI-ICE" indicates anti-ice ON, but "FLT"
  light out.
 Probe Anti-icing:
      Anytime "ENG PROBE & NACELLE" selected ON AND an
      engine is running, the Probe is heated.  The Probe supplies air pressure and temperature information
  to engine fuel computer.  Powered by Distribution
  Bus.  Located 12 o'clock position in engine inlet.

 Pitot Static
      2 pitot tubes (L & R), 4 static ports/side.  3 are heated, small one is unheated (pressurization).
          Pitot:  2 pitot tubes, heated 28 vdc when nose wheel is airborne.  AOA heated 350 deg F in air & 95 deg ground.  Case is also heated on ground through a resistor as not to overheat,
called 'preheat'. "Auto" position:
       Ground: Pitot, Static, SAT/TAS inop; AOA in
            preheat, if right Avionics Bus on.
               Flight: Everything on (AOA has another heater for probe.)
          "Override" position turns everything on.  Max 30 seconds on the ground.
      "PITOT HT", "SAT/TAS", "AOA HT" enunciators on if
  reduced flow or loss of power. "PITOT HT"
  light also comes on for static failure.
      "AOA PREHT" indicates preheat failure.

    Anti-icing: Electric heating elements imbedded in the glass. Only used when actually needed.  Powered by the
  Main Busses with Auto Load Shed protection.
  "WINDSHIELD HT FAIL" indicates a malfunction in
       either the left or right system.
       FAIL" light and "LH" and "RH" lights if system
       tests are fault free.
     Rain Removal: Windshield wipers, speed controls both sides, sides separate.  Pilot's powered by Dist No.1, Co-pilot's off Dist No.2.
     Baggage Compartment Heat: Four heating elements, each with own thermal switch set at 45 F, overheat at 150.  Two heaters off Main Bus 1, 2 off Main Bus 2 (Auto Load Shed Item). Must be removed if using extension tanks.
          Anti-ice ON for all ground and flight if icing exists or is anticipated.
      Turn on Ignition before anti-ice on.
      "ENG PROBE & NACELLE" anti-ice push buttons must be
  activated for ice removal.  "FLT" light should
  be on.
      Limit Anti-ice operation to 10 seconds per engine
      for ground checks when 10 C or higher, and when icing does not exist.
      Activate Windshield Heat only after recognition of
  ice buildup.
      Do not operate Surface De-ice below -40 C.

 Air Sources
      'Normal': Manifold interconnecting left and right
  engines pressurized by LP and HP air.
          'Ground': Supplied from HP compressor of right engine.
          'Emergency': Supplied from LP compressor of right engine.
      'Emergency Ventilating': Ambient air from flush scoop
  (upper right of fuselage).
 Bleed Switching Valves:
      The Bleed Switching Valves (one each engine) control the normal source of air to the manifold.
  Electrically controlled and pneumatically operated,
  they are fail-safe open. When LP air < 18 psi, HP
  supplies.  As engine power increases and LP air
  reaches 19 psi, LP & HP mix maintaining a pressure
  of 18 - 20 psi.

Cabin Air Selector
          'Both': Pneumatically controlled modulated air to 28 psi.  Bleed switching valves act as temperature limiters (400 F).
      'L Eng': Left bleed switching valve only.
      'R Eng':
  Flight: Same as for left.
      Ground: Opens ground bypass to allow HP air from right engine to ground air condition. Must have the following circuitry made: Right
  throttle < 52% N1, right nacelle anti-ice off,
      right strut switch on ground, and T/R's stowed.
      'Ram Pull': Power removed from all valves -- cabin
  will depressurize.

          Standard ACM with two heat exchangers, pressure
relief at 60 psi. Ram Air Inlet for H.E.  cooling.
  Water Separator sprays over second H.E. to cool.
  Water Separator Anti-icing is by warm bleed air
      muff which has a bypass for condenser sock in case anti-ice inop.
          Blowout Discs: (HP co-axial ducting) in underside of pylons.
      Wire Detector: in LP ducting.
      "BLEED AIR LEAK": bleed leakage detected by wire.
          "BLEED PRESSURE HI": Senses temperature &/or pressure limits in bleed line from manifold to
  distribution system.
      "DUCT TEMP HI": Sensor downstream of mixing plenum
      in distribution duct plenum.  Drives valve toward cold till duct temp is in normal range.
 Refrigeration (Con't):
      Manual Temp Controller: No 2 right Distribution Bus
      Auto Temp Controller: No 1 left Distribution Bus
          Refrigeration Bypass Valve: Determines how much bleed air is allowed to either bypass or pass through the refrigeration unit.
  Cockpit air outlets, both sides.
  Defog, knob on pedestal.
  Foot warmer, 'Air Cond Pilots' knob on pedestal
  Gasper, cold air from before mix chamber.
  Conditioned air, cabin air outlets.

     Normal Air Source: Simultaneous Left and Right compressors  through common manifold.  (Both LP & HP.) Emergency Air: LP compressor off right engine.
 Auto: Electropneumatic
 Manual: Pneumatic
 Cabin Air Selector:
  B, set Baro
  A, set landing field elevation
          R, set rate of cabin climb/descent (PIP = 600 fpm up, 360 fpm down. Range = 2500 up, 1500 down)
     Auto Controller: Auto schedule of cabin t aircraft altitude (ie. DC-9).
 Bite: Self-test at power up; fault light on 2 - 3 sec's,
  then out for good test.  Bite also monitors system
     "FAULT": light on indicates test in progress (2 - 3 sec's) or if on continuously, a fault in the system.
 Normal Max Diff Press: is 8.77 psi.

 Manual Controller: DEC-INC moves secondary valve to move
      cabin air pressure to move outflow valve.  Rate knob controls rate of change.  If center position of INC-DEC knob reselected, auto reselected.
     Outflow Valves: Forward is the primary, aft is secondary.  (Fail-safe closed.) In Auto electronic
      signals to primary valve, secondary inhibited. Manual, electric power removed from primary valve and secondary valve used.
 Outflow Safety: 8.9 - 9.0.
 Jet Pump: to maintain flow.
 "CABIN 10,000": light on aneroid sensor.
 Neg diff Press: .35 psi controlled by each outflow valve
     Ditching Valve: Manually operated valve (in cabin floor) which closes both outflow valves for ditching.

 Ground Unpress: L eng, R eng, or Both, in Auto, aircraft
      on ground, cabin door shut, switches set for flight, L eng < 85% N2.
     Ground Pre-Press: Left throttle > 85% N2, cabin alt descends 300 fpm to 140' below field elevation.
  Pre-press off if: 1) abort, at left throttle at
  idle, 2) aircraft lifts off and goes into flight.
 Flight: Auto controller uses higher of: auto schedule
  altitude, takeoff field elevation, and landing
  field elevation.  Changes enroute: 100' climb
      (aircraft alt) will start controller up; 500' descent starts cabin down.  If touchdown pressur-
  ized, outflow opens slowly for 60 sec's then goes to
  ground unpress mode.
 Power for Auto: 28 VDC No 1 Left Distribution Bus
  The following switches must be in these positions
  for auto pressurization:
       "MAN PRESS" switch light off
       "CABIN DUMP" switch light off
       "CABIN AIR" selector not in 'RAM PULL'.


Main Hydraulic System
2 Engine Driven Pumps
Aux Hydraulic System
1 Electric Pump
Landing Gear
Emergency/Parking Brakes
Thrust reversers
Nose Wheel Steering


 Main System:
          Two Engine driven hydraulic pumps (each 6.5 gpm) run the Main system. Main Reservoir:  sight gauge on left aft fuselage, aft of baggage, must be above 1/2. Pressurized and regulated to 30 psi, 38 psi positive pressure relief, 2 psi neg relief. Two electrically operated shut-off valves (on res) - "Fire/Overheat".  Case drain cooling.  (95cc for neg "g".)

          Filters: one each downstream of pump, pop-out indicator at 80 psi, non bypass.  One each on
return line, pop-out at 60 psi, bypass at 70. System: runs at 3000 psi, relief at 3650 psi.
  "Hyd Pump" (amber annunciaor) off at 1500  psi each side.
          "Hyd Level" reservoir level down to .11 gal (300 cc), turns on light and Aux pump.
          "Hyd Tank Press"  comes on when tank pressure down to 8.5 -10.5
 Aux System:
      One electric hydraulic pump (2 gpm) to run the Auxiliary system.System: pressure 3000 - 3300 psi, relief at 3650.
          Reservoir located on right side aft of baggage. Sight gauge 1/2.  Pressurized to 30 psi, bleed
      air tapped from main res press system. Relief of 38 psi.  Case drain cooling.
          Pump power from 28 vdc No 2 Main bus, 100 amp remote c/b. Control power off No 2 Dist Bus.
      Filters: One downstream of pump, 70 psi pop-out, no
      bypass.  One return line filter, 60 psi pop- out, 70 psi bypass.
      Accumulator: pressure for T/R's and Emergency/
  Parking Brake. Good for one T/R deploy -OR-
  10 emergency brakes. Nitrogen precharge 1500
      psi. Can be read right aft fuselage at fueling panel. Push release valve button to release hyd press, now gauge reads accumulator press.
          Aux Pump: 'Auto'
                    1) Aircraft on the ground (t.o and landing).
                    2) Complete loss of pressure in main system/both pumps out.
                3) Low fluid level in main res.
                    4) Loss of aux system accumulator pressure.
                    5) Mechanical failure or low hydraulic press in either aileron actuator, "Aileron Fail" it will also come on.
      Note: The pump will go off when the condition is fixed, except Aileron failure.
           'Override': pump operates continuously.
      "Aux Hyd Off" light on when pressure above 2100
           psi then below 1800, or Aileron < 900 psi for
           2 1/2 seconds.
          "Aux Hyd Level" light on when level down to .045 gal (53 cc).
      Type fluid: Skydrol LD IV or:
  Skydrol 500 B
  Chevron   W
  Aero Safe 2300 W
  Chevron Hyjet III

Landing Gear

      Powered: Mechanically controlled, hydraulically
  actuated.  Mechanically locked up and down,
  hydraulically unlocked.

          Gear Horn: Gear not down and locked with one or both throttles in idle and airspeed < 156 kts. Also if gear not down and locked and flaps 40 (no silence).
      Struts: Nose 2" chromed piston visible, main 1.6".
          Held up by two uplock springs on each main gear door and one on the nose, and hydraulic pressure.  If pressure lost, springs hold up.
          Brakes applied after gear up to stop wheels.
Return pressure from retract cycle used. Emergency Extension: Blow down with nitrogen press.
       Handle located in pilot's pedestal, left side.
      Normal indication in cockpit, pin extends in nose wheel well to indicate blow down.  Hyd fluid returns to reservoir, bypasses main selector.  Do not attempt to retract gear. Nitrogen pressure is 3000 psi, precharge 1500. Check gauge in fueling panel, right aft fuse.
 Nosewheel Steering:
          Power: Hydraulically powered, mechanically controlled.  Squat switch disables when
  airborne and centers Nose wheel for retraction
  with centering spring. Range 58 deg each side
  of center.
          Bypass Valve: Loss of main hydraulic pressure actuates a pressure switch opening a bypass
  valve.  Closed with press on and squat switch
  on ground.
      Pip pin: releases nose scissors for towing.
Normal: Main hydraulic system or accumulator.
Parking: Aux hyd system or brake accumulator.
Antiskid: Powered from No 1 & 2 Dist Busses.
ON for T.O. and landing. Inop in-flight, or < 10 kts. Signals transmitted after 35 kts.


 Floodlights: have own 115v inverter for flood rheostat.
     Master Switch: controls all cockpit lighting except dome lights and map lights.

 Emergency Lights:
      power:    entrance light, doorstep lights, cockpit
      step light, emergency exit lights, and the light forward of the wing. (Evacuation!)
          come on:  with DC failure, if switch in 'Armed' position.
      charging: two battery packs (6vdc, 1-2 AH) are
  continuously charged when DC is powered,
  and the switch is in 'armed' or 'off'
  (not 'On') position. (Either the
  Master Battery and one bat switch on, or
  the generators on line, or EPU on line.)

Flight Profiles

    Here are some basic flight profiles that I have used over the years.  They are not the only way to fly the airplane, but have worked for me since I started giving training and checkrides in biz jets  little over 20 years ago.  In the event of a difference between this and the Aircraft Flight Manual, the flight manual is the document to follow.

Steep Turns

1.  Enter at 250 KTS indicated AIRSPEED.
2.  Bank aircraft 45 deg.  As you pass 30 deg of bank, pitch up 2 deg.  Add power to maintain AIRSPEED.
3.  Lead roll out by 15 deg.  Passing 30 deg bank, pitch down 2 deg  to maintain  altitude.
4.  Maintain 250 KTS and assigned heading.

Stall - Cruise Configuration

1.    Compute Vref & set AIRSPEED bugs.
2.    Maintain assigned altitude and set power to Idle.
3.    Trim for level flight until passing 150 KTS.  Maintain altitude with necessary back pressure.
4.    At first indication of a stall,  throttles to " MAX POWER "
5.    Call " MAX  POWER Flaps 12 deg.
6     Reduce pitch ONLY to the extent necessary to eliminate symptoms of the stall.
7.    Reestablish assigned altitude.
8.    At Vref + 30 KTS, call " Flaps Up, After Takeoff Checklist.  "
9.    Maintain AIRSPEED and altitude as directed.

Stall - Takeoff Configuration

1.  Compute Vref, set AIRSPEED bugs & select flaps 20.
2.  Maintain assigned altitude and set power to 50% N1.
3.  Trim for level flight until passing 150 KTS.
4.  Maintain altitude with necessary back pressure.
5.  At first indication of a stall, advance throttles & call " MAX POWER ".
6.  Reduce pitch ONLY to the extent necessary to eliminate symptoms of the stall.
7.  Reestablish assigned altitude.
8.  At Vref + 30 KTS, call " Flaps 12 deg, then Up, After Takeoff Checklist.  "
9.  Maintain AIRSPEED and altitude as directed.

Stall - Landing Configuration

1.    Slow to flap speed, set 60% N1 & Set bug to Vref.
2.    Maintain assigned heading & altitude.
3.    Below 250 KTS, " Flaps 12 deg".
4.    Below 225 KTS, " Flaps 20 deg".
5.    Below 180 KTS, " Gear Down Landing Check ".
6.    Below 180 KTS, " Full flaps. " trim to Vref. Establish a 400-700 feet/min sink rate at Vref.
7.    Level off at designated altitude  W I T H O U T increase in power
8.    Maintain altitude until  first indication of a stall.
9.    Apply MAX power lower nose only as much as required to eliminate the stall warning.
                     At Vref minus 10 KTS   M I N I M U M  speed, call for " Flaps 20 deg", and increase the
                     pitch attitude to 10 deg nose up at about 1 deg / sec.
10.  When VSI & Altimeter indicate positive rate of climb call " Positive rate, Gear Up ".
11.  Establish 7.5 deg nose up attitude.
12.  At Vref + 30 KTS, Call " Flaps 12 deg, then Up, After Takeoff Checklist ".
13.  Return to entry heading and altitude or as directed.

ILS Approach - Two Engines

1.    Intercept LOC at 140-160 KTS and Flaps 20 deg.
2.    One dot prior to intercepting Glide Slope, call " Gear Down Landing Check ".
3.    When ON the glidepath, call " Full Flaps ".
4.  Establish Vref to Vref + 5 KTS & track LOC & GS until Minimums.  Land or Missed Approach as appropriate.

ILS Approach - One Engine

 1.  Intercept LOC at 140-160 KTS and Flaps 12 deg.
 2.  One dot prior to intercepting Glide Slope, call " Gear Down Landing Check ".
 3.  When ON the glidepath, call "Flaps 20 deg".
 4.  Establish Vref + 20 KTS & track LOC & GS
 5.  At 100-150 Ft AGL, Full flaps, power idle & land.

Non Precision Approach - One or Two Engines

1.    Intercept Final Approach Course at 140 KTS and Flaps 20 deg.
2.    Crossing Final Approach Fix, call " Gear Down Landing Check ".
3.    Descend to and maintain MDA until Field in Sight or MAP is initiated. ( As Appropriate ).
4.    If Landing is to be made, call " Full Flaps " when intercepting a glidepath appropriate for a
                      normal landing.  For one engine INOP, Vref + 20 KTS until 100 feet AGL, then " Full
                      Flaps" so as to descend thru 50 ft AGL at Vref as in a normal landing.

No Flap Approach

1.  Vref + 30 KTS until established on Final Approach.
2.  Vref + 20 KTS on final.
3.  Approach angle NORMAL.  A flat approach will usually result in a longer landing roll.

Note:  See the abnormal procedures checklist for appropriate speeds with slats retracted.  If slats will not extend, you are limited to 20 deg of trailing edge flaps.  Also, pay close attention to airspeed on final, as the stall characteristics of the Astra are quite different without the slats deployed.  I have had more than one student find theirself upside down shortly after their first stall with the slats locked out.

Go Around or Missed Approach

1.  "Max Power", Rotate to 10 deg, " Flaps 20 deg".
2.  Positive Rate of Climb, " Gear Up ", Vref + 30, " Flaps up, After Takeoff Checklist ".
3.  Climb at 200 KTS.
4.  Engine Failure or Fire Checklist if Appropriate.

Note:  Due to the engines being mounted far above the center of gravity of the airplane, a substantial nose down pitch moment will be encountered when go around thrust is applied in landing configuration.  Be prepared, as it will result in a 15 deg nose down attitude if the appropriate back pressure and elevator trim are not applied.


1.  Set V2 on Capt. Airspeed & V1 on Co-Pilots Airspeed.
2.  At 80 kts, left hand moves from tiller to Yoke.
3.  At V1, right hand moves from throttles to Yoke.
4.  Vr, Rotate to 15 deg ( 2 eng ) 12 deg ( 1 eng ).
5.  Climb at 15 deg pitch, ( 2 eng ) or V 2 ( 1 eng ).
6.  At 400 ft & V2+30 KTS, "Flaps Up After T.O. Check ".
7.  Engine Failure or Fire Checklist if Appropriate.
8.  Climb  200 KTS to 3000 AGL then 250 Kts.

Rejected Takeoff

1.  Proceed as in normal takeoff until malfunction dictates that the takeoff be rejected.
2.  Capt. calls "Abort" (Co-Pilot may call Abort if Capt elects to delegate that authority).
3.  Thrust levers to idle
4.  Speedbrakes extend.
5.  Wheel brakes as necessary.
6.  Thrust Reverse deploy.
7.  If another takeoff is contemplated consider brake energy & appropriate turnaround time.

Emergency Descent

 1.    Oxygen masks on within 5 sec of cabin pressure loss.
 2.    Check passenger oxygen masks deployed.
 3.     Select Oxygen mask microphone.
 4.    Ignition ON.
 5.    Thrust levers to idle.
 6.    Spoilers Extend.
 7.    Auto Pilot OFF.
 8.    Initiate 45 deg bank if desired.
 9.    Vmo/Mmo minus 10 kts to 14,000 or MEA as required.
10.  Clean up & proceed to nearest suitable airport if appropriate.

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